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Indian History & Culture - Part 3


Indian History & Culture - Part 3

301 What was the complaint of Pliny the elder, against India? He complained that India drained Roman wealth by selling luxury articles at high prices to Romans
302 What was the name of the son of King of Takshashila who offered Alexander help in invading India? Ambhi. This was the first recorded instance of an Indian King turning traitor.
303 What was the name the Greeks used to refer to Ambhi? Omphis.
304 By which name do we know the ancient city of Prayag? Allahabad.
305 Of the five Siddhantas (Indian astronomical works) two are said to be of Western origin. Which? Romaka Siddhanta and Paulisa Siddhanta. This shows that Indian astronomy was considerably influenced by Western thoughts.
306 What is the modern name for the ancient city of Purushapura? Peshawar.
307 From which language is the word 'Sindoora'
(vermilion) derived?
Chinese. (From the Chinese word Tsin-sung.)
308 According to Chinese sources Kaundinya an Indian Prince, formed a kingdom in south East Asia. Where was this kingdom located? Cambodia.
309 Who was Buddha's personal physician? Jivaka. Jivaka was the personal physician of Bimbisara. During his visit to Buddha, Bimbisara offered the services of Jivaka, who became Buddha's personal physician.
310 Who were the Ajivikas? They were one of the prominent religious sects during the time of Mahavira and Buddha.
311 In Vedic times, who was referred to as a 'Grihapati'? The master of the house.
312 Which common seasoning ingredient of today finds no reference in the Rig Veda? Salt.
313 What was the name of the famous tract of land that lay between the Saraswati and the Drishadvati? Kurukshetra.
314 What was the Rajasuya sacrifice (yajna)? It was the yajna to mark the royal consecration. It included offerings to the gods in the houses of officials and a formal abhisheka by the priest. Other popular rites that followed were a cow-raid and a game of dice in which the king was made the Victor.
315 What was the Vishwajit sacrifice? In the Vishwajit sacrifice, the (yajamana) performer had to give away all that he possessed.
316 Who succeeded Chandra Gupta I? Samudragupta.
317 According to legend, who succeeded Samudragupta? His son Rama Gupta. He was a weak ruler who surrendered his wife to a Shaka tyrant. Her honour was saved by the younger brother of Rama Gupta, Chandra Gupta, who killed the Shaka ruler, replaced his brother on the throne and married Dhruvadevi.
318 Who succeeded Chandra Gupta II? His son Kumara Gupta, who ruled from AD 415 to 455.
319 Who or what were the Huns? They were a race of fierce, warlike people, whose original home was in the steppes of Central Asia. They spread terror and destruction both in the West (i.e. the Roman Empire) and India.
320 Which Gupta ruler successfully defended his empire against the invading Huns? Skanda Gupta.
321 Which Gupta ruler performed the Ashwamedha yajna? Samudra Gupta.
322 Into which group of people were the Huns assimilated by the Indian society? The Rajputs.
323 Which dynasty claimed its descent from Lakshmana, the brother of Shri Rama? The Pratiharas. By the ninth century the influence of Pratiharas extended from the Punjab to central India and from Kathiawar to north Bengal.
324 Who invented the decimal place value system? Aryabhata invented the decimal place value system. Scholars hold that it cannot be said with certainty that the system was invented by Aryabhata. It seems it was known to astronomers who came before him.
325 The Cholas extended their territory in South India and also conquered the northern part of Sri Lanka. Who was the ruler who made northern Sri Lanka a province of his empire? Rajaraja Chola.
326 Which part of India did the Arabs first conquer? Sindh. Mohammed Ibn-Kasim, the nephew and son-in-law of the governor of Iraq, defeated Dahir Sen in 712 A.D.
327 What are the four sources of Law according to the law giver, Manu? a. Sruti or the Vedas.
b. Smriti (expanded version of the Dharma     shastras). Smriti is also regarded as the only     authentic source of Hindu Law and social     customs,
c. Customs of holy men
d. One's own inclination.
328 By what name was the area of western and northwestern Bengal known? Gauda. The name was applied both to the people and their country.
329 Where in Maharashtra are frescoes that depict the Jataka Stories? At Ajanta, near Ellora caves.
330 What was the language used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization? Historians have as yet not been able to determine the language used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization. The script used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization has also not been deciphered.
331 Which was the animal that was most engraved on Indus Valley Civilization seals? The Humpless Bull.
332 What was unique about the ascension to the throne by Gopala, the founder of the Pala dynasty in Gauda (present day West Bengal)? He was not a hereditary ruler, but was elected by the people to rule over them.
333 Which was the seat of power of the Pallava dynasty? Kanchipuram. The Pallavas founded the first great empire in south India. Under the Pallavas, Kanchi became a great centre of Brahminical and Buddhist
334 Who was the Chola ruler who crossed the Ganga and defeated the rulers there? Rajendra Chola.
335 When did the first invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni take
1000 A.D.
336 Who was the first Indian ruler defeated by Mahmud of Ghazni? Jayapala of the Hindushahi dynasty.
337 Where is Ghazni? In modem Afghanistan.
338 Why were temples the main target of Mahmud of Ghazni? They had immense wealth stockpiled.
339 Who was the Arab traveller whose work on India is referred to as a mirror of 11"1 century India? Alberuni.
340 At whose request did Alberuni travel to India? Mahmudof Ghazni.
341 At which battle did Prithviraj Chauhan defeat Mohammed of Ghori? In the first Battle of Tarain in 1190-91.
342 Which medieval ruler is reputed to be an author of almost 20 books on subjects as diverse as medicine, architecture and astronomy? Raja Bhoja of the Paramara dynasty. The Paramara dynasty ruled over the Malwa region.
343 Identify the person who was in charge of Mohammad of Ghori's possessions in India. Qutbuddin Aibak.
344 To which deity was the temple of Somnath dedicated? Shiva.
345 Who wrote the Ramayana in Tamil? Kamban.
346 Who was the founder of the Slave dynasty? Qutbuddin Aibak.
347 Why is the term "Slave dynasty" an inaccurate term? Only three sultans (Qutbuddin Aibak, Iltutmish and Balban) were slaves, and later even they were released from slavery by their masters. They were slaves, but only in the early part of their lives.
348 Who was the only woman to ascend the throne of Delhi? Razia Sultana.
349 Which Persian historian accompanied Alauddin Khalji on his expedition to Chittor? Amir Khusrau.
350 The Choda Ganga dynasty of Orissa was responsible for the construction of some famous temples. Can you identify them? The Jagannath temple at Puri and the Sun Temple at Konark.
351 Name the king of Mewar who is said to have built thirty two forts during his reign? RanaKumbha
352 How did Rana Kumbha celebrate his victory over Mahmud Khalji of Malwa? He built the Tower of Victory in Chittor. It is called the Vijayastambha.
353 Who helped Humayun save himself after the Battle of Chausa? A water carrier helped Humayun cross the Ganga and to safety.
354 Over which kingdom did Chand Bibi rule? She ruled over Ahmadnagar as a Regent.
355 What articles of trade was the kingdom of Golconda known for? Diamonds and textiles.
356 Who founded the city of Hyderabad? Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah.
357 Who was the Qutub Minar dedicated to? The Sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki and not Qutbuddin Aibak as people mistakenly assume.
358 In which language did Shankaradeva, a Bhakti Saint, propagate his views? Assamese.
359 In which language did Surdas sing? Brij.
360 Where is the famous Kamakhya temple (Kamakshi)? At Guwahati.
361 Which Mughal Emperor adopted the Zoroastrian
practice of Navroz?
362 Which were the provinces added by Aurangzeb to the Mughal Empire? Bijapur and Golconda.
363 Who took care of Shah Jahan when he was kept imprisoned by Aurangzeb? Jahanara, Shah Jahan's daughter.
364 Who installed a chain of bells outside his palace gate? Jahangir.
365 Why was the chain of bells installed? This was the "Chain of Justice" installed to ensure that all citizens of the country had access to justice.
366 During the reign of which Mughal Emperor was the peacock throne made? Shah Jahan.
367 Which place did Vasco da Gama reach when he found a new route to India? Calicut. Now known as Kozhikode
368 What were the European Factories that are referred to in Indian history? Factories were nothing but fortified trading stations established by the European powers in India.
369 Where did the English set up their first factory? Surat.
370 Who was the Englishman who succeeded in getting a farman from the Mughals exempting the English from paying any inland toll? Sir Thomas Roe.
371 What prompted Jahangir to allow the English to set up a factory in Surat? The British defeated the Portuguese naval squadrons. Jahangir wanted to use the English as a counter against the growing Portuguese power.
372 What were the reasons why the British wanted to secure Bombay from the Portuguese? Those controlling Bombay controlled trade on the west coast. And there was no interference from either the Mughals or the Marathas on this sea.
373 Which city did Job Charnock establish? Colcutta.
374 Which Saint inspired the Marathas with ideals of social reform and national regeneration? Saint Samarth Ramdas.
375 Near which fort, acquired early in his career, did Shivaji build Raigarh? Torna.
376 Between 1649 and 1655 Shivaji suspended offensive operations against Bijapur. Why did he do so? His father had been arrested and was released only on the condition that Shivaji suspend his military activities.
377 Alauddin Khalji was the nephew and son-in-law of a Delhi Sultan whom he later murdered. Who was the sultan? Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji.
378 One of the more interesting causes for a battle fought in Indian history has been vividly described by Malik Muhammad Jayasi in his epic Padmavat. What, according to Malik Muhammad Jayasi was the cause of the battle? That Allaudin Khalji invaded Chittor because he was infatuated by Padmini, the queen of Rana Ratan Singh of Mewar.
379 Why did Muhammad-bin-Tughluq shift his capital from Delhi? He shifted his capital to Deogir (Deogiri) because it held a central position in the empire and therefore, would be safe from Mongol invasions.
380 Who was the first Afghan to be seated on the throne of Delhi? Buhlul Khan Lodi (in April 1451).
381 Which kingdom came into existence during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq? Bahmani kingdom.
382 Where is Babur buried? He is buried in Kabul.
383 Poems of which Kashmiri poet are the oldest of the ones still available with us? LallaDidi(LalDed)
384 The ruler of Bihar conferred upon the young Farid a title. What was the title and why was it conferred upon him? Sher Khan, for killing a tiger single-handed.
385 What was the name assumed by Farid when he ascended the throne? Sher Shah.
386 Who were the opponents in the battle fought at Chausa? Humayun and Sher Shah.
387 How did Sher Shah die? Sher Shah died due to an accidental explosion of gunpowder while attempting to capture the fort Kalinjar in 1545.
388 Which ruler helped Humayun recover Kandahar and Kabul? The Ruler of Persia.
389 Who proclaimed Akbar the Emperor? Bairam Khan in 1556.
390 What words did Saint Ramanuja use to describe the scheduled castes? Tirukulattar (Belonging to the family of God).
391 At what age did Akbar ascend the thorne? Thirteen years.
392 How did Humayun die? Humayun tumbled down the stairs of his library when he was responding to the call of muezzin for evening prayers.
393 What was the occupation of Himu (also spelt Hemu) before he rose to prominence in politics? He was a grocer.
394 Who fought the second battle of Panipat? Akbar and Himu.
395 Who wrote Lilavati, a treatise on Algebra? Bhaskaracharya.
396 What title did Himu adopt after he occupied Agra and Delhi by defeating its Mughal governor? Raja Vikramaditya
397 Who did Iltutmish nominate as his successor His daughter Razia.
398 Himu, in the battle of Panipat, gained initial success against the Mughal forces. How did the tide turn in the favour of the Mughals? A chance arrow struck Himu in the eye rendering him unconscious. Deprived of his leadership his soldiers dispersed in confusion.
399 The Mughal forces defeated a Rajput ruler at the pass of Haldighat. Which ruler are we talking about? Rana Pratap.
400 Which work describes the romantic story of the marriage of Sanyogita the daughter of the Gahadavala king Jaichandra with Prithviraj Chauhan? Prithviraja Raso.
401 Marco Polo was a traveller (from Venice) who is very well known for his adventures. Which south Indian dynasty does he mention in his travelogues? The Kakatiya dynasty.
402 Timur or Tamerlane, a central Asian Turk (and an ancestor of Babur) invaded India and ransacked Delhi. Who was the ruler of Delhi at that time? Sultan Mahmud Shah.
403 Name the ruler of the Tughluq dynasty who was well versed in Astronomy, Mathematics and Medicine. Muhammad bin Tughluq.
404 A particular dance form gained prominence during the Vijayanagara period. What was the dance form? Yakshagana.
405 Who fought the battle of Talikota? The battle was fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the combined forces of the Deccan Sultans. The Sultan of Berar however did not take part in this battle.
406 Who won the battle of Talikota? The Vijayanagara forces were comprehensively defeated and this eventually led to their downfall.
407 Where was the Battle of Talikota fought? It was fought in the area between the villages of Rakassi and Tangadi (Tagdi). Due to the bloodshed and ruin that this battle brought on the Vijayanagara Empire it was also called 'Raktakshi Tangadi'.
408 Who were the opponents at the battle of Khanua? Rana Sanga and Babur.
409 What was the name of RanaPratap's horse? Chetak.
410 Who was the Jesuit missionary who held personal
discussions with Akbar?
Anthony Monserrate.
411 How do we better know Mihr-un-nisa in Indian
412 What was the title given to Mihr-un-nisa by Jahangir? Nur Mahal (the light of the Palace). The title was later changed to Nur Jahan (Light of the World).
413 Who was the Mughal queen whose name was written on all the imperial Mughal farmans of her time and inscribed on coins? Nur Jahan.
414 After Akbar secured victory in Gujarat he undertook an activity to commemorate this victory. What was that activity? He founded the city of Fatehpur Sikri.
415 By which name was Ramtanu Mishra known? Tansen. He was earlier in the employment of the Raja of Rewah.
416 Name the Mughal emperor who was an accomplished veena player. Aurangzeb
417 The Razmnama in Persian was a compilation by several scholars. Of which Hindu epic was this a translation? Mahabharata
418 Name Aurangzeb's daughter who wrote under the pen name Makhi and produced a collection of poems. Zebunnisa.
419 King Charles II of England married the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza. How did this event affect Indian history? The Portuguese transferred the islands that make up modern Mumbai to the British as the dowry of Catherine.
420 From whom did the Portuguese capture Goa? Sultan of Bijapur.
421 Who was the Portuguese Governor who captured Goa? Alfonso de Albuquerque.
422 What was Shivaji's council of ministers known as? The Ashla Pradhan Mandal.
423 Who were the opponents in the battle of Takkolam? Cholas and Pandyas. The Pandyas were completely defeated.
424 How do we better know the Kingdom of Pragjyotishpur? Assam.
425 Which dynasties rose on the ruins of the Chola dynasty? The Pandyas and the Hoysalas.
426 Who wrote the Telugu version of the Mahabharata? Nanniah. Though he began the work it was eventually completed by Tikkanna.
427 Who were the "Nayanars" in Tamil Nadu? They were devotees of Shiva who flourished between the sixth and ninth centuries.
428 Who were the "Alvars" in Tamil Nadu? They were the devotees of Vishnu.
429 Who fought the second battle of Tarain in 1192 A,D? Prithviraj Chauhan and Muhammad Ghori.
430 Before the battle of Tarain, Prithviraj Chauhan appealed for help from the rajas of North India. One prominent ruler refused any. Who was this ruler? Jaichandra of Kanauj.
431 What was the capital of the Bahmani kingdom? Gulbarga.
432 Who was the Turkish officer who conquered the area of north Bengal? BakhtiyarKhalji.
433 How did Qutbuddin Aibak die?' He fell off his horse while playing chaugan (polo) and died due to the resultant injuries.
434 Who succeeded Qutbuddin Aibak to the throne of Delhi? Iltutmish (son-in-law of Qutbuddin Aibak).
435 What did Shivaji say when he got the news of the capture of Kondana? "Gadh aala pun Sinha gela" - We got the fort but lost the lion (referring to Tanaji Malsure).
436 What was the original name of the town Daulatabad? Deogiri (Devgiri).
437 For how long did Razia rule? About three and a half years.
438 How do we better know Ulugh Khan in Indian history? Balban.
439 What were the ceremonies introduced by Balban, merely to demonstrate his superiority to other nobles? Sijada-Prostration Paibos - Kissing the emperor's feet. He introduced these ceremonies to demonstrate his superiority over the nobles.
440 During whose rule did the Mongols make the first serious attempt to establish their rule over Delhi? Alauddin Khalji.
441 What is the region of Kamrup known in modern India? Assam.
442 Who were the sons of Shah Jahan? Dara Shikoh (also Shukoh), Shuja Murad and Aurangzeb.
443 During the reign of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, where was his son Muhammad Tughlaq posted? Deogir.
444 Who was the first sultan of Delhi to pay his soldiers in cash? Alauddin Khalji.
445 Which ruler introduced the concept of token currency in India? Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
446 Harihara and Bukka rebelled against Muhammad Bin Tughlaq and founded a kingdom. What was it? The Vijayanagara Kingdom.
447 Whom did Shah Jahan choose, in his last will, as his heir apparent? Dara Shukoh.
448 During whose rule did jizyah become a separate tax? Firuz Tughlaq. It was a part of the land revenue in earlier times.
449 During the period of the Delhi Sultanate who was the most important official? TheWazir.
450 Who was commissioned by Akbar to write the history of his reign? AbulFazI.
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